Science, Essential Revision Notes

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Table of Contents

BIOLOGY 6

Drugs 7

Developing new drugs 7

Recreational drugs 8

Drugs and mental health 8

Drug abuse in sports 8

Environment and Energy 9

Plant adaptations 9

Animal adaptations 10

Microorganisms 11

Environmental changes 11

Pollution 12

Energy 12

Natural recycling 13

The carbon cycle 13

Genetics and Evolution 14

Types of reproduction 15

Cloning animals and plants 15

Genetic engineering 16

GM crops 17

Evolution 17

Natural selection 18

Diet and Health 20

Healthy Living 20

Food and Diet 20

Health risk factors 22

Importance of exercise 23

Diseases (Infections and Viruses) 23

The Body’s Defence System 24

Immunisation and Vaccination 25

Drugs, smoking & alcohol 27

Nerves and Hormones 29

The Nervous System 29

The Central Nervous System (CNS) 29

The eye 30

Control in the human body 31

Hormones in the body 32

The role of hormones in the menstrual cycle 33

Controlling Fertility 33

Control in plants 34

Plant Hormones: 34

CHEMISTRY 35

The Atom 36

Periodic table 37

Chemical Reactions 38

Calcium Carbonate 39

Limestone and building materials 39

Limestone over other materials 40

Properties of Metals 40

Exploiting metal ores 41

Recycling of metals 41

Metal as a structural material 41

Properties and uses of Metals 42

Crude oils and fuels 42

Hydrocarbons 43

Obtaining useful substances from crude oil 44

Polymers 44

Ethanol 45

Hydrogen gas 45

Vegetable oils 45

Additives 46

Emulsions 46

Unsaturated and saturated oils 46

The earths crust 47

Wegener’s theory 47

Earths atmosphere 48

Global dimming 48

Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 49

Changes in the atmosphere 49

PHYSICS 50

Heat transfer 51

Thermal radiation 51

Heat radiation 51

Kinetic energy 52

Heat conduction 52

Heat convection 53

Heating buildings 53

Specific heat capacity 54

Energy transfers 54

Efficiency 55

Electrical energy 55

Power stations 56

Renewables affecting the environment 57

The national grid 57

Waves 58

Measuring waves 59

Electromagnetic waves 60

Light 60

Sound 61

The Doppler Effect 61

Big bang theory 61

B...

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