US politics

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Table of Contents

US political structures 5

The American Constitution and the ‘Separation of Powers’ 5

The American Constitution 5

The Presidency: Roosevelt to Reagan 1945-1989 8

The growth of Presidential power: 1945-1990 8

1933-1945: Franklin D Roosevelt (Democrat) 8

1945-1953: Harry S Truman (Democrat) 8

1953-1961: Dwight D Eisenhower (Republican) 9

1961-1963: John F Kennedy (JFK) (Democrat) 9

1963-1969: Lyndon B Johnson (LBJ) (Democrat) 9

1969-1974: Richard M Nixon (Republican) 9

1974-1977: Gerard Ford (Republican) 10

1977-1981: Jimmy Carter (Democrat) 10

1981-1989: Ronald Reagan (Republican) 10

American Foreign Policy 1945-1989 11

1945-1949: The Start of the Cold War 11

Ideological differences between the superpowers 11

1945-1948: The Cold War begins 11

Europe in the Cold War 11

1948-1949: Germany after the Second World War 12

People’s Republic of China 13

Military Alliances: NATO 13

The Soviet Union’s atom bomb 13

McCarthyism and the Cold War inside America 13

1949-1961: Korea and the Cold War in the 1950s 15

The Cold War spreads to Asia 15

Eisenhower and Khrushchev 16

Kennedy’s foreign policy, 1961-1963 17

How America became involved in Vietnam 19

Vietnam before 1945 19

War between the Vietminh and the French 19

1954: Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Accords 19

The war resumes 19

Direct American involvement begins 20

Lyndon Johnson and the Vietnam War 21

America leaves Vietnam 25

The results of the Vietnam War 25

1973-1989: Nixon, Reagan and the last years of the Cold War 26

Detente 1962-1979 26

The end of Detente 26

Mikhail Gorbachev and the end of the Cold War 27

Advances in Technology and the Moon Landing 28

The arms race and the Cold War 28

Developments in Information Technology 30

Early computers 30

Personal computers 30

The Internet 30

The space race and the Moon Landing 31

1945-1961: Competing rocket technologies 31

Technological advances and the Moon Landing 31

Later Apollo flights and the end of the space race 33

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