The Middle East 1956–1999

The Middle East
1956 – 1999
GCSE History Revision Notes

By Dane O’Neill

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Contents

Topic Key words: 5

1.1 - The background to the problems in the Middle East: Palestine after WW1 and WW2 6

Palestine: the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict 6

Arabs become angered 6

Palestine after WW2 6

The Morrison Plan, 1946 7

1.2 - The Palestinian crisis worsens 7

‘Haganah’ and the Jewish paramilitaries 7

Haganah and Irgun: the bombing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, 22 July, 1946 7

1.3 - Cold War Tensions: US involvement in the Middle East and the US’ dilemma 7

1.4 - The UN plans to partition Palestine, 1947 8

1.5 - Britain withdraws from Palestine and Civil War erupts 8

1.6 - The First Arab-Israeli War, 1948-1949 8

1.7 - The Aftermath of the War 8

1.8 - The Suez Crisis, 1956 9

Origins: Tensions between Egypt and the West 9

Nasser Responds: the Suez Canal is nationalized 9

Britain, France, and Israel respond 9

1.9 - The Arab Summits, 1964 -1965 9

The Cairo Summit, January 1964 9

The Alexandria Summit, September 1964 10

1.10 - The Founding of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), 1964 10

1.11 - The Six Day War, June 5-10, 1967 10

Origins 10

The fighting begins 10

The Aftermath of the Six Day War 11

2.1 - Terrorism: Hijackings, 1970 12

The Dawson’s Field Hijackings, 1970 12

The Munich Olympics (the Munich Massacre), 1972 12

2.2 - The Yom Kippur War, 1973 12

2.3 - Oil Wars and Economic Pressures 13

The Oil Crisis, 1973 13

2.4 - The Palestinians and the Israelis 13

The PLO, 1974-1975 13

Yasser Arafat at the UN A...

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