Physical Geography B

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Table of Contents

Water on the land 5

River Erosion 5

River Transportation 5

River Deposition 6

River Landforms 7

Meanders and oxbow lakes 8

River Management 9

River Discharge 10

Rock type: 10

Causes of flooding 11

CASE STUDIES 13

Water on the land 13

Case study of flooding in poorer area 14

Bangladesh 1998 14

The Coastal Zone 15

Coastal Erosion 15

Coastal transportation 15

Longshore Drift 15

Waves 16

Features of Coastal erosion 16

Cliffs 16

Caves, Sea Arches and Stacks 17

Features of coastal deposition 18

Coastal Management 19

Hard Engineering Strategies 19

Soft engineering Strategies 20

THE COASTAL ZONE 23

CASE STUDIES 23

Ice on the land 25

The Pleistocene 25

Glacial erosion 26

Landforms of glacial erosion 27

Weathering 28

Glacial transportation and deposition 29

Landforms of glacial deposition 29

ICE ON THE LAND 31

CASE STUDY OF ALPINE AREA FOR WINTER SPORTS 31

CASE STUDY OF AVALANCHE: Chamonix 33

CASE STUDY OF ALPINE AREA (FOR SIGHTSEEING OF GLACIERS) 33

Water on the land

River Erosion

There are a number of ways in which a river can break up and remove rocks and soil:

  1. Hydraulic action

This process is carried out by the strength and weight (or force) of the river itself. The force of the flowing water creates cracks and loosens the rock from the river bed and its sides.

  1. Abrasion

This type of erosion is caused by the load the river is carrying; It scrapes against the rock wearing it down.

  1. Attrition

During this process of erosion there is friction between the load itself and between the load and the river bed. Rock particles hit of one another causing them to break down.

  1. Solution

Minerals within the rock itself are dissolved by the flowing water.

  1. Vertical and Lateral erosion

River Transportation

There are a number of ways a river carries (or transports) its load. This is known as transportation. The way in which the load is carried depends on the size of the particles. The following are the main types of transportation:

  1. Tractio...

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