Human Geography A

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Table of Contents

Population Change 4

Impacts of urbanisation, agricultural change, education and the emancipation of women on the rate of population growth 5

Social, economic and political implications caused by population change: 6

The effectiveness of population policies in different countries since 1990’s: 7

Migration, push & pull factors, positive & negative impacts 10

Population change case studies 12

Changing urban environments 15

Issues facing urban areas: 16

Cultural mix: 16

Revitalizing the image of CBD 17

Quality of living in these settlements 18

Effects of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation: 18

Changing Urban Environments Case Studies 22

Changing Rural Environments 22

Environmental Protection 24

Effects of agribusinesses on the environment 26

Influence of the market along with influence of major supermarkets and food processing companies. 27

Government policies aimed at reducing Environmental effects of high impact farming: 28

Sub tropical and tropical farming 28

Changing Rural Environments CASE STUDIES 30

Population Change

‘The exponential rate of world population growth’ refers to the rapidly increasing population of the world. In 1750 the world’s population was estimated to be under 800 million. In 2000 this figure had jumped to a staggering 6.2 billion. The world’s population is predicted to double to 12.4 billion by 2050.

Demographic Transition Model

This model illustrates how as a country develops, its population changes. There are 5 stages:

  • High Fluctuating Stage
  • Early Expanding Stage
  • Late Expanding Stage
  • Low Fluctuating Stage
  • Senile Stage

Stage 1:

During stage one, the ‘high fluctuating stage’ both birth rates and death rates are high.

Birth rates are high as children are seen as an asset. (Work the land, look after elderly parents)

Death rates are high as clean water, sanitation and medical care are not available

Stage 2:

During the second stage, known as ‘the early expanding stage,...

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