Athletics, Track and Field


Outline (from syllabus)

Athletics—running, jumping, throwing and walking events performed indoors or outdoors which are measurable in terms of the performer’s own ability but also against standards set by others’ achievements. In choosing athletics as one of the physical activity areas, learners are required to select one of the three categories:

  • Running
  • Throwing
  • Jumping

The assessment of performance will focus on one activity within the chosen category.

Learners are required to show evidence of their capacity to perform the skills and techniques in the selected activity, e.g. discus from the throwing category.

Learners may choose one activity from one of the following categories:


  • Sprints
  • Middle distance
  • Long distance
  • Hurdles


  • Starts and finishes
  • Upper body action (head and arms)
  • Lower body action (legs)
  • Overall efficiency


  • Shot-put
  • Discus
  • Javelin
  • Hammer


  • Grip, stance and preparation
  • Movement into throwing action
  • Release and follow through
  • Overall efficiency


  • High jump
  • Long jump
  • Triple jump


  • Run up
  • Take off
  • Flight
  • Landing
  • Overall efficiency


Starts and finishes


In the sprint events in particular, there is a need to have an efficient start. We look at the standing, crouch and block starts and the correct positions for the ‘On your marks’ and ‘Set’ positions.

Standing start

On your marks

Standing start- on your marks

  • The foot is placed up to the starting line but not on it.
  • The feet are about shoulder width apart to obtain a good balanced position
  • The weight is distributed so that about 2/3rds of the weight is on the front foot


Standing start - set

  • Bend the knees and lean forwards.
  • Arms synchronised with the legs - in this case left foot forward and right arm forward
  • Back, neck and head in line
  • Remain motionless

Note, this is the start athletes typically use for any distance beyond 400m.

4-point start

On your marks

Crouch Start - On your marks

  • Place the left foot behind the line
  • Place the right foot behind the left
  • Remove the left foot and place the left knee adjacent to the right ankle
  • The toe of the left foot should be turned under
  • Hands should be...

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