Geography Essential Revision Notes

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT 1 4

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 4

CONTINENTAL DRIFT 8

PLATE BOUNDARIES 9

OCEANIC-CONTINENTAL CONVERGENCE 12

VOLCANOES 15

WHAT IS A VOLCANO? 15

VOLCANIC MATERIALS 15

WILL IT FLOW / BLOW? 16

GLOBAL PATTERN OF VOLCANOES 17

CLASSIFYING VOLCANIC STRUCTURES 17

EXTRUSIVE STRUCTURES 18

LEVELS OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY 19

PREDICTING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS 22

LEINSTER BATHOLITH 25

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ICELAND 26

EARTHQUAKES 27

PHYSICAL PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS 37

ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE 37

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©mocks.ie Revision Notes Geography Leaving Certificate

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT 2 50

IRELAND 51

PHYSICAL PROCESSES 53

ECONCOMIC PROCESSES 54

EUROPE 68

MEZZOGIORNO: ‘Land of the Midday Sun’ 68

PARIS BASIN, France 76

INDIA 87

PHYSICAL PROCESSES (Climate and Relief) 89

CHECKLIST REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY 97

PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT 99

POPULATION 100

URBAN GROWTH 135

The Wright Plan 137

Buchanan Report 137

Urban Renewal 138

URBAN LANDUSE MODELS 139

THE 5 ZONES OF THE CONCENTRIC MODEL 140

URBAN GROWTH IN EU : The Randstad 142

DEVELOPING WORLD CITIES 146

Page 3 of 147

©mocks.ie Revision Notes Geography Leaving Certificate

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT 1

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

Introduction

The earth’s surface has and is being constantly shaped by powerful forces that occur deep within the planet. (Endogenic forces)

It is accepted that the earth’s interior consists of a series of layers. There are three main layers, which are in order of increasing depth:

  1. The crust o The mantle o The core

Layer 1- the crust

This is the surface, outermost layer of the earth. It has the following features:

  1. It is a solid layer made up of rock
  2. Its main surface features are the continents and ocean basins
  3. It is the thinnest layer with maximum depth around 70 km
  4. The thickness of the crust varies
  5. Temperatures are lower than in the deepest layers
  6. Highest temperatures around 375 c
  7. There are 2 types of crusts; Continental crust and Oceanic crust

Continental crust

  1. This forms the surface of all the con...

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