Bond Formations

Bond formation

Q) Using a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in an ammonia, NH3, molecule. (2009, Hl, 7 marks)

Join N with three H atoms.

N (group 5) > valency of 3 i.e. needs 3 electrons from other atom(s) for it to become stable.

H (group 1) > valency of 1 i.e. needs one more electron to be stable. NOTE THE RELEVANCE OF VALANCY IN FUTURE

NH3 Ammonia

N has an Atomic Number of 7 and 7 electrons in ground state

Electron pattern 2,5

H

Lone Pair

N H

N has 5 e- on outer shell

3 of these 5 are involved in bonding The NH3 has a pyramidal shape.

Bonding Pairs

Exam Revision: 2009

  1. Define oxidation in terms of electron transfer. (4)
    • Oxidation is the loss of electrons

The electrolysis, using inert electrodes, of aqueous potassium iodide, KI, to which a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator have been added, is shown in the diagram.

  1. Name a suitable material for the electrodes. (3)
    • platinum / carbon (graphite)
  2. Write balanced half equations for the reactions that take place at the electrodes. (12)
    • anode: + ½ I2 + e / 2I¯ + I2 + 2e FORMULAS: (3) BALANCING: (3)
    • [Electrons may be shown subtracted on the left. Neg. charge on e need not be shown.]
    • cathode: 2H2O + 2e + H2 + 2OH¯ / H2O + e + ½ H2 + OH¯

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    • FORMULAE: (3) BALANCING: (3)
    • [Electrons may be shown subtracted on the right. Neg. charge on e need not be shown.]
  1. Explain the colour change observed at the positive electrode (anode). (6)
    • colour of the iodine produced
    • [Allow 3 for “correct colour : red, orange, yellow, brown or combinations of them” if iodine not stated]

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