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Junior Certificate Science, Full Course

Peter Jackson

Author

These notes were brought to you by Peter Jackson. Peter is the Head of Science at St Columbas College, Whitechurch, Co Dublin. Peter has over 30 years teaching experience and has corrected Biology papers for the Department of Education for over 25 years and also marks appeals for the Department. Peter teaches Science at JC and Biology and Chemistry at LC. Peter has also recently written a book for Leaving Certificate students 'Essentials Unfolded - Chemistry ' specifically to help students studying Chemistry at LC. He has also given numerous courses on Lab Safety and IT in Teaching.

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Contents

Biology 6

Human Biology – Food, Digestion and Associated Body Systems 6

Food 6

Digestion 7

Enzymes 8

Aerobic Respiration 8

Breathing System 9

Circulatory System 10

Excretion 11

The Skeletal/Muscular System, the Senses and Human reproduction 12

Muscular System 12

Sensory System 14

Reproductive System 15

Genetics 16

Animals, Plants and Micro-organisms 17

The Light Microscope 19

Plant Structure 21

Transport in Plants 21

Photosynthesis 22

Reproduction and Germination in Plants 22

Flower Structure 23

Ecology 24

CHEMISTRY 29

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures 29

Mixtures and Compounds 32

Acids and Bases 33

Air, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Water 35

Hardness in Water 38

Water Treatment: 38

Acids and Bases 39

Reactions of Acids and Bases 40

Atomic Structure, Reactions and Compounds 41

Basic Atomic Structure 41

Isotopes: 42

Bonding 42

Ionic Bonds 42

Covalent Bonds 43

Rusting and Corrosion 44

Metals 45

Hydrocarbons 46

Plastics 46

Role of Chemistry 47

Physics 48

Force and Energy 48

Measurement in Science 48

Density the mass per unit volume (kgm-3) 49

Flotation for Solids and Liquids 50

Force: 50

Centre of Gravity 51

Equilibrium and the Law of the Lever 52

Pressure in Fluids (Liquids and Gases) 53

Atmospheric Pressure and its Relationship to Weather 54

Energy 54

Energy Conversion 56

Work and Power 57

Heat, Light and Sound 59

Heat 59

The Diffe...

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