Junior Cert History Footsteps Notes

Contents

WORK OF HISTORIANS/ARCHAEOLOGISTS 6

History: 6

Archaeology: 6

THE STONE AGE 7

Overview: 7

Mesolithic: 7

Neolithic: 7

THE BRONZE AGE 9

Overview: 9

Farming: 9

Daily Life: 9

Burial Customs: 9

THE CELTS 10

Overview: 10

Food and Drink: 10

Dwellings: 10

Celtic Society: 10

Farming and Crafts: 10

Pastimes: 11

Religion: 11

THE ROMANS 12

Overview: 12

Roman Cities: 12

Dwellings: 12

Rulers of Rome: 12

Latin: 12

Work: 12

Leisure Activities 13

Education: 13

Food: 14

Clothing: 14

Religion: 14

The Army: 14

EARLY CHRISTIAN IRELAND 16

Overview: 16

Early Monasteries: 16

Monasteries: 16

Artistic Achievement: 16

Irish Monks Abroad: 17

Overview: 18

The Medieval Manor & Village: 18

Medieval Castles: 18

Medieval Towns: 19

Medieval Churches & Monasteries: 19

THE AGE OF EXPLORATION 21

Overview: 21

Prince Henry the Navigator: 21

Bartholomew Diaz: 21

Vasco da Gama: 21

Christopher Columbus: 22

Ferdinand Magellan: 22

Conquistadores – Hernando Cortes: 23

Conquistadores – Fernando Pizarro: 23

Consequences: 23

THE RENAISSANCE 24

Overview: 24

Why Renaissance starts in Italy: 24

Why Renaissance starts in Florence: 24

Developments in Painting: 24

Case Study of Great Renaissance Painter – LEONARDO DA VINCI: 25

Developments in Sculpture: 25

Case Study of Great Renaissance Sculptor – MICHELANGELO BUONAROTTI: 25

Developments in Architecture: 25

Case Study of Great Renaissance Sculptor – FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI: 26

Gutenberg and the Printing Press: 26

Case Study of Great Renaissance Medical Thinker – Andreas Vesalius: 26

Case Study of Great Renaissance Scientist – Galileo Galilei: 26

Case Study of Non-Italian Artist – Albrecht Durer: 27

THE REFORMATION 28

Overview: 28

Causes: 28

Other factors: 28

Martin Luther: 28

John Calvin: 29

Henry VIII: 29

The Counter-Reformation: 29

THE PLANTATIONS 31

Overview: 31

The Pale: 31

The Anglo-Irish Lordships: 31

The Gaelic Irish Lordships: 31

Reasons for Tudor Conquest: 31

Military Conquest: 31

Surrender and Regrant: 31

Plantation: 32

Laois/Offaly Plantation: 32

Munster Plantation: 32

Ulster Plantation: 32

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 34

Background: 34

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